Saturday, January 25, 2020

Consumer Buying Behaviour: Chocolate

Consumer Buying Behaviour: Chocolate The project being a part of TY.B.B.A curriculum had to be carried out to obtain an outline of Business Research Methods (BRM) by conducting research based project in the organization. The research was conducted onconsumer buying behaviour while purchasing chocolate. Questionnaires were filled by the cusumers at the at the different places. Marketer. Consumer decides what to purchase, for whom to purchase, why to purchase, from where to purchase, and how much to purchase. In order to become a successful marketer, he must know the liking or disliking of the customers. He must also know the time and the quantity of goods and services, a consumer may purchase, so that he may store the goods or provide the services according to the likings of the consumers. Gone are the days when the concept of market was let the buyers beware or when the market was mainly the sellers market. Now the whole concept of consumers sovereignty prevails. The manufacturers produce and the sellers sell whatever the consumer likes. In this sense, consumer is the supreme in the market. As consumers, we play a very vital role in the health of the economy local, national or international. The decision we make concerning our consumption behavior affect the demand for the basic raw materials, for the transportation, for the banking, for the production; they effect the employment of workers and deployment of resources and success of some industries and failures of others. Thus marketer must understand this. Preference (or taste) is a concept, used in the social sciences, particularly economics. It assumes a real or imagined choice between alternatives and the possibility of rank ordering of these alternatives, based on happiness, satisfaction, gratification, enjoyment, utility they provide. More generally, it can be seen as a source of motivation. In cognitive sciences, individual preferences enable choice of objectives/goals. The study of the consumer preference not only focuses on how and why consumers make buying decision, but also focuses on how and why consumers make choice of the goods they buy and their evaluation of these goods after use. So for success of any company or product promotion it is very necessary to depart its concentration towards consumer preference. SCOPE OF THE STUDY As learning is a human activity and is as natural, as breathing. Despite of the fact that learning is all pervasive in our lives, psychologists do not agree on how learning takes place. How individuals learn is a matter of interest to marketers. They want to teach consumers in their roles as their roles as consumers. They want consumers to learn about their products, product attributes, potential consumers benefit, how to use, maintain or even dispose of the product and new ways of behaving that will satisfy not only the consumers needs, but the marketers objectives. The scope of my study restricts itself to the analysis of consumer preferences, perception and consumption of Cadbury and Nestle Chocolates. There are many other brands of chocolates available but my study is limited to two major players of chocolates leaving behind the others. The scope of my study is also restricts itself to Ambala region only. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The other objective is to know about the customer satisfaction level associated with the product and the customer preference level. To increase customer satisfaction and recapture the market share by fulfilling the customer needs. To study the factors affecting the consumption pattern. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY In attempt to make this project valid and reliable, every possible aspect of the topic Is kept in mind. Nevertheless, despite of fact constraints were at play during the Formulation of this project. The main limitations are as follows: Different people from different places were selected for the study. The sample size of surveyed was 300. The main source of data for the study was primary data with the help of questionnaires. People were cautious to disclose the true facts. COMPANY OVERVIEW OF CADBURY Cadbury India is a fully owned subsidy of Kraft Foods Inc. The combination of Kraft Foods and Cadbury creates a global powerhouse in snacks, confectionery and quick meals. With annual revenues of approximately $50 billion, the combined company is the worlds second largest food company, making delicious products for billions of consumers in more than 160 countries. We employ approximately 140,000 people and have operations in more than 70 countries. Modern Cadbury Factory In India, Cadbury began its operations in 1948 by importing chocolates. After 60 years of existence, it today has five company-owned manufacturing facilities at Thane, Induri (Pune) and Malanpur (Gwalior), Bangalore and Baddi (Himachal Pradesh) and 4 sales offices (New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkota and Chennai). The corporate office is in Mumbai. Our core purpose make today delicious captures the spirit of what we are trying to achieve as a business. We make delicious foods you can feel good about. Whether watching your weight or preparing to celebrate, grabbing a quick bite or sitting down to family night, we pour our hearts into creating foods that are wholesome and delicious. Currently, Cadbury India operates in four categories viz. Chocolate Confectionery, Milk Food Drinks, Candy and Gum category. In the Chocolate Confectionery business, Cadbury has maintained its undisputed leadership over the years. Some of the key brands in India are Cadbury Dairy Milk, 5 Star, Perk, Éclairs and Celebrations. Cadbury enjoys a value market share of over 70% the highest Cadbury brand share in the world! Our billion-dollar brand Cadbury Dairy Milk is considered the gold standard for chocolates in India. The pure taste of CDM defines the chocolate taste for the Indian consumer. In the Milk Food drinks segment our main product is Bournvita the leading Malted Food Drink (MFD) in the country. Similarly in the medicated candy category Halls is the undisputed leader. We recently entered the gums category with the launch of our worldwide dominant bubble gum brand Bubbaloo. Bubbaloo is sold in 25 countries worldwide. Since 1965 Cadbury has also pioneered the development of cocoa cultivation in India. For over two decades, we have worked with the Kerala Agriculture University to undertake cocoa research and released clones, hybrids that improve the cocoa yield. Our Cocoa team visits farmers and advise them on the cultivation aspects from planting to harvesting. We also conduct farmers meetings seminars to educate them on Cocoa cultivation aspects. Our efforts have increased cocoa productivity and touched the lives of thousands of farmers. Hardly surprising then that the Cocoa tree is called the Cadbury tree! Today, as a combined company with an unmatched portfolio in confectionery, snacking and quick meals, we are poised in our leap towards quantum growth. We are the worlds No.1 Confectionery Company. And we will continue to make today delicious! CADBURY CELABERATION Cadbury Celebrations was aimed at replacing traditional gifting options like Mithai and dry- fruits during festive seasons. Cadbury Celebrations is available in several assortments: An assortment of chocolates like 5 Star, Perk, Gems, Dairy Milk and Nutties and rich dry fruits enrobed in Cadbury dairy milk chocolate in 5 variants, Almond magic, raisin magic, cashew magic, nut butterscotch and caramels. The super premium Celebrations Rich Dry Fruit Collection which is a festive offering is an exotic range of chocolate covered dry fruits and nuts in various flavours and the premium dark chocolate range which is exotic dark chocolate in luscious flavours. Cadbury Celebrations has become a popular brand on occasions such as Diwali, Rakhi, Dussera puja. It is also a major success as a corporate gifting brand. The communication is based on the emotional route and the tag line says rishte pakne do which fits with the brand purpose of strengthening your relationships with something sweet. 5 STAR Chocolate lovers for a quarter of a century have indulged their taste buds with a Cadbury 5 Star. A leading knight in the Cadbury portfolio and the second largest after Cadbury Dairy Milk with a market share of 14%, Cadbury 5 Star moves from strength to strength every year by increasing its user base. Launched in 1969 as a bar of chocolate that was hard outside with soft caramel nougat inside, Cadbury 5 Star has re-invented itself over the years to keep satisfying the consumers taste for a high quality different chocolate eating experience. One of the key properties that Cadbury 5 Star was associated with was its classic Gold colour. And through the passage of time, this was one property that both, the brand and the consumer stuck to as a valuable association. Cadbury 5 Star was always unique because of its format and any communication highlighting this uniqueness, went down well with the audiences. From deliciously rich, youd hate to share it in the 70s, to the lingering taste of togetherness Soft and Chewy 5 Star in the late 80s, the communication always paid homage to the product format. More recently, to give consumers another reason to come into the Cadbury 5 Star fold, Cadbury 5 Star Crunchy was launched. The same delicious Cadbury 5 Star was now available with a dash of rice crispies. Cadbury 5 Star Cadbury 5 Star Crunchy now aim to continue the upward trend. This different and delightfully tasty chocolate is well poised to rule the market as an extremely successful brand. DAIRY MILK The story of Cadbury Dairy Milk started way back in 1905 at Bournville, U.K., but the journey with chocolate lovers in India began in 1948. The pure taste of Cadbury Dairy Milk is the taste most Indians crave for when they think of Cadbury Dairy Milk. The variants Fruit Nut, Crackle and Roast Almond, combine the classic taste of Cadbury Dairy Milk with a variety of ingredients and are very popular amongst teens adults. Recently, Cadbury Dairy Milk Desserts was launched, specifically to cater to the urge for something sweet after meals. Cadbury Dairy Milk has exciting products on offer Cadbury Dairy Milk Wowie, chocolate with Disney characters embossed in it, and Cadbury Dairy Milk 2 in 1, a delightful combination of milk chocolate and white chocolate. Giving consumers an exciting reason to keep coming back into the fun filled world of Cadbury. Cadbury Dairy Milk has been the market leader in the chocolate category for years. And has participated and been a part of every Indians moments of happiness, joy and celebration. Today, Cadbury Dairy Milk alone holds 30% value share of the Indian chocolate market. In the early 90s, chocolates were seen as meant for kids, usually a reward or a bribe for children. In the Mid 90s the category was re-defined by the very popular `Real Taste of Life campaign, shifting the focus from `just for kids to the `kid in all of us. It appealed to the child in every adult. And Cadbury Dairy Milk became the perfect expression of spontaneity and shared good feelings. The Real Taste of Life campaign had many memorable executions, which people still fondly remember. However, the one with the girl dancing on the cricket field has remained etched in everyones memory, as the most spontaneous un-inhibited expression of happiness. This campaign went on to be awarded The Campaign of the Century, in India at the Abby (Ad Club, Mumbai) awards. In the late 90s, to further expand the category, the focus shifted towards widening chocolate consumption amongst the masses, through the Khanewalon Ko Khane Ka Bahana Chahiye campaign. This campaign built social acceptance for chocolate consumption amongst adults, by showcasing collective and shared moments. More recently, the Kuch Meetha Ho Jaaye campaign associated Cadbury Dairy Milk with celebratory occasions and the phrase Pappu Pass Ho Gaya became part of street language. It has been adopted by consumers and today is used extensively to express joy in a moment of achievement / success. The interactive campaign for Pappu Pass Ho Gaya bagged a Bronze Lion at the prestigious Cannes Advertising Festival 2006 for Best use of internet and new media. The idea involved a tie-up with Reliance India Mobile service and allowed students to check their exam results using their mobile service and encouraged those who passed their examinations to celebrate with Cadbury Dairy Milk. Cement Industry: Environmental Changes Cement Industry: Environmental Changes Cement Industry Summary This report details the way in which the cement industry currently produces cement and outlines the reasons why it needs to be changed in order for it to have a lower less damaging effect on the environment as possible. This can be achieved by implementing new procedures in the process of manufacturing cement and also by using different materials in this process, all of these ideas and more are currently being implemented or are being developed for implementation in the near future by the cement industry and associated partners. Terms of reference This report is on an area of the UK construction industry that has a negative impact on the environment. This report was undertaken and focuses on the environmental impact that the production process of cement has on the environment in the UK and how the process in manufacturing cement is changing/developing for the future. The report show’s how the process of cement production was under taken and what steps have or are waiting to be implemented in the production of cement that will be less damaging to the UK environment. This report was created in November of 2007 for Phil Harris, lecturer at Wolverhampton University for Environmental Science in construction. What is Cement? Cement is the second most consumed substance in the world, and is second only to water consumption. A brief history of Portland cement sees that it was invented and produced in the UK in 1824 by an English bricklayer named Joseph Aspdin. He found that by Burning limestone and clay together at incredible heat (approx than 2700 degrees Fahrenheit) it made the two minerals fuse together. Once this newly created material was cool enough it was then ground down into a fine ash, this newly created substance could then be mixed with water and the resulting substance that when allowed to set, would be as hard as the Portland stone that gave it its name. This article appeared in the Guardian on Thursday May 11 2006 on p1 of the technology section. What do we use Cement for? Cement is one of the single most important materials relied upon in the world, without cement we would not be able to build houses, roads, bridges and other public structures that cement products help to build. We need cement to produce concrete; concrete is basically a mixture of two components: aggregates and paste. The paste is usually composed of Portland cement and water, and when mixed together it binds the fine and coarse aggregates together. A typical mix is about 10 to 15% cement, 60 to 75% sand/aggregate, 10 to 20% water and 5 to 8% air. The production process of cement. The manufacturing of cement is still one of the most energy consuming processes that is under taken in the world today. But a lot of development has and still is taking place within the cement manufacturing industry with a view to meeting the government targets of reducing the amount of greenhouse gases produced per tonne of cement manufactured. â€Å"Cement is said to be one of the most environmentally hazardous materials in the world, adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than the entire weight of the global airline industry† – quote from the Guardian Newspaper. Most of the stages in the manufacturing of cement have a negative impact on the environment, and this report highlights those direct and indirect effects, and how the future of cement manufacturing will continue to implement new methods of manufacturing to reduce the negative effects on the environment. The first stage in manufacturing cement is to obtain the raw materials from a quarry; the raw materials are then crushed usually 2 or 3 times to approx 3† or less and then fed into a kiln in a dry state. The raw materials are then heated up to approx 2700 degrees F in large steel rotary cylinder, which is lined with a special heat resistant brick. Kilns are usually at least 12 feet in diameter and mounted on a slight incline. The finely ground raw material is then fed into the higher end of the kiln and at the lower end you have a roaring flame being applied and controlled very precisely, usually produced by coal, oil or gas with a controlled amount of forced draft. As the process flow continues through the kiln gas elements are burned off and the remaining elements form a new substance called a â€Å"clinker† these are in the form of small marble type shapes. Clinkers are discharged from the lower end of the kiln and brought down to a manageable temperature by means of various types of coolers. The coolers do however at this stage help towards reducing Co2 emissions by saving fuel by returning the hot air emitted from the cooling clinkers back into the cylindrical kiln as part of the controlled air used to sustain the flame used. Co2 emissions and cement production What is Co2? â€Å"Carbon dioxide is a colourless gas that makes up a minor part of the earth’s atmosphere – approximately three parts in 10,000. It is formed in the decay of materials, the respiration of plant and animal life, and the natural and human-induced combustion of carbon-based materials and fuels.† Quote from What is the role of Co2 in the Earth’s atmosphere? Carbon dioxide is one of a number of naturally occurring greenhouse gases (others include water vapour, methane, and nitrous oxide) that keep the Earth warm enough to support life. These gas molecules absorb much of the sun’s energy that is re-radiated by the Earth’s surface, and reflect this energy back to the Earth as heat. The gas molecules function like an insulating blanket, or like glass panes of a greenhouse, transmitting sunlight but holding in heat – hence the term â€Å"greenhouse gases.† Quote from The link between cement production and Co2 production is quite apparent as studies have been carried out by scientists who have concluded that there are a variety of human activities that are producing greenhouse gases such as Co2. One such activity is the production of cement which is one of the main contributors to the greenhouse effect due to the high amount of Co2 being produced during manufacturing. The traditional Portland cement based concrete is the UK’s backbone of the built environment and production of this cement is needed to keep up with the rapid population growth which in turn then lead’s to an increase in production of cement. This is due partly to an increase in the housing requirements of the public and associated buildings that are required by the general public to sustain a comfortable life style. Conclusion What is required within the cement manufacturing industry are some lower energy consuming cements that give of less carbon emissions during manufacturing to be developed and take over where the traditional cements left off. If this cannot be done then the negative effects that are currently damaging the environment will only continue to develop and have greater detrimental effect on the planet. There are a number of developing technologies coming through at the moment and these are produced using various different materials for use in the building industry. One of these new product’s is called Ceramicrete which is a lighter foam-based concrete which according to there makers is twice as strong as the concrete’s we currently use so builders use less of it hence the better it is for the environment! The only negatives known about this new product is that it is more expensive than traditional concrete and it needs to be subjected to further testing to establish it’s long-term structural suitability and environmental performance before it can be promoted on a wider scale. There are a number of other cements currently in production that are also worth exploring as they are less energy dependant during manufacturing and emit less carbon dioxide than traditional Portland cement these are†¦ Magnesium oxide-based cements CSA-belite cements Eco-cements based on municipal solid waste incinerator ash. Magnesium oxide-based cements Magnesium oxide based cements are quite a recent development in such that they haven’t been mass produced and have only had small commercial quantities made to produce non structural products such as concrete bricks, blocks and pavers. The magnesium oxide is produced by heating magnesium carbonate as a mineral magnesite, to a temperature of around 650  °C. A quantity of CO2 is given off during this process. In comparison, Portland cement which is based on calcium oxide and has to be produced by firstly heating calcium carbonate (limestone) to approx 900  °C, again with CO2 as a by product. At this stage in the process, the quantity of CO2 released is less than that from an equivalent mass of magnesium carbonate but the calcium oxide, plus other ingredients then has to be heated to 1450  °C to produce the final product a â€Å"clinker†. This other process is accompanied by more CO2 being emitted during the whole process, with the resulting CO2 being much greater than that emitted during the production of the same quantity of magnesite. So at first glance magnesium oxide-based cements look like a better solution than continuing with Portland cement manufacturing in the UK but in practice manufacture is dependent on the availability of the basic raw material and its proximity to a production facility but regrettably the raw material found in abundance in mainland Australia and Tasmania, is very rare in the UK where there are no significant deposits in UK suitable. Therefore, as a minimum, there would be a significant increase in traffic movements required to transport the raw material to existing kilns, with consequent environmental impacts. CSA-belite cements This type of cement has been successfully used on industrial scale throughout china for about 20 years; it is made by heating/sintering industrial wastes such as coal fly ash, gypsum and limestone at 1200 – 1250 °C in rotary kilns Compared with Portland cement the energy savings are quoted as being approx as high as 25%, along with limestone reductions of 60 % together with a reduction in CO2 emissions of approx 20%. At first glance, CSA-belite cements could be manufactured in the UK, as there is no technical process or supply issues to be dealt with in regards of their production. However, much applied research and many pilot studies would be needed to verify that local materials and existing plant could produce consistent high quality product before manufacturers in the UK would take it on. Eco-cements based on municipal solid waste incinerator ash Eco-cements are currently being manufactured in Japan, they are based on the traditional Portland cement in as such that they are processed in much the same way as traditional Portland cement but approx 50% of the content has been replaced by municipal solid waste incinerator ash (MSWIA), and the fossil-fuels used for heating purposes have been replaced by waste products such as oil and non recyclable plastics. MSWIA eco-cement use less energy as well as ‘clinkering’ takes place at 1350 °C as apposed to 1450 °C. But for a few exceptions eco-cements are virtually indistinguishable from Portland cement and consequently have very much the same properties, performance. There would seem to be no obvious technical barriers to production in the UK. However, manufacture would be dependent on the availability of MSWIA and its location to existing cement works. Currently, this is in short and irregular supply in the UK but even if this were not to be the case, public perception issues might arise about the process of manufacturing, so the likelihood of producing a familiar Portland cement by this process is at present very unlikely. References Bibliography BCA – British cement Association, Carbon Strategy (2005) [online]. BCA – British cement Association, cement (no date) [online]. BCA – British cement Association, concrete (no date) [online]. BCA – British cement Association, Sustainable Development Task Force Report (2005) [online]. BCA – British cement Association, Sustainable Development Task Force Report (2005) [online]. Bye, G, C. (1999) Portland Cement: Composition, Production and Properties 2Rev Ed edition. Thomas Telford Ltd Dodson, S. (11th May 2006) A cracking alternative to cement. The Guardian Newspaper, p1. EcoSmart, cement production and the CO2 challenge (no date) [online]. EcoSmart, CO2 emissions (no date) [online]. Topliss, S. Hurst, M. Skarratt, G. (2007) Construction: Building Services Engineering Civil Engineering. Scotprint, Haddington, Scotland, UK

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